French Family Association

The Official Website of the Surname French

St. Andrews Church, Halstead, Essex County, England

Chart #E2, William French, 1606
Gosfield, Halstead, The Leete
County Essex, England
St. Gabriel Fenchurch, London, England
Billerica, Massachusetts

This chart updated by Mara French on 12/20/10. Numbers in brackets [ ] show sources and refer to the bibliography at the end of this chart. An asterisk (*) shows continuation of that line. Send any corrections or additions to this chart to marafrench@mindspring.com. Revisions: 1994, 2007, 2009, 2010.

Contents

FFA Home Page

England History and Research

William Frenches of the Halstead Area in Essex, England

William French the Emigrant

DNA Group 6 Analysis of Families

DNA Group 6 Test Results

DNA Group and Chart Cross Reference

Possible Ancestors of William French

Descendants of William French in America

Outline

The Earliest Records in Halstead of a William French

Greenstreet vs. The Leete

Relationship between Families Scrogges, Burton, Symmes, Man, French, and Harlakenden

First Generation

Second Generation

Third Generation

Marriages

Genealogies of the Families Burton, Scroggs, Symmes, and Harlakenden in connection with the French Family

Court Records

The Leete

Fourth Generation

Marriages

Homestead between 1625-1635

Burial

Other Records in England

Immigration to New England from Fenchurch, London

Was William an Indentured Servant?

Who Was the Other Elizabeth French on the Ship Defence?

Other Passengers on the Ship Defence

Fifth Generation

Parentage of Francis French

Halstead

Incorrect Line of William French

Elizabeth Godfrey and her Son Francis French

Photos of French Family Homesteads in England (coming soon)

Maps

Essex Record Office

Memoirs of a Passenger on the Ship Defence

Further Records in England

Bibliography

England History and Research

It's very difficult deciphering the Frenches of NE Essex England.  Sometimes children were christened in xxf1625their mother's hometown, not their fathers. Some villages didn't have a parish and the children were christened elsewhere. Other children were christened long after they were born, sometimes 2 or 3 siblings together, and not in the parish where they were born. No one had middle names back in the 1600s. In this area, there were many Frenches with the names Thomas, William, John, and Richard, and not so common were Jacob, Francis, and Samuel.

Since 1965, I've been putting together a schematic of all these French families in NE Essex. I always do research about 10 years beyond 1640, when most of the Puritans immigrated. I've found that a lot of these French families never left England. They were educated in England, had more children, and died there. Therefore, one cannot hypothesize that they are the ones who immigrated to America.

I have the records for Coggeshall, Terling, Birdbrook, Halstead, Assington, Greenstreet, Gosfield, Weatherfield, Great Bardfield, Arkesden, Great Maplestead, Sible Hedingham, Bures St. Mary and others for the surname French. See England Charts. Hiring researchers in England who can read the old English script and who have special permission to view the original records with a blue light, is expensive and time-consuming, but worth it to me. I have the knowledge of all these families in my head, but these researchers provide invaluable clues, especially court cases and land records. Many of these records prove at least that the person involved is an adult and not a child.

William Frenches of the Halstead Area in Essex, England

As you can see below, whenever a death or marriage or child baptism is mentioned, it is very difficult to figure out which William they are talking about. It is like figuring out a huge puzzle with all the pieces the same color and shape. If anyone has any documents on William French in England, please let me know, marafrench@mindspring.com.

Christening Dates

Š      William French, chr. 15 Mar 1602/3, son of Thomas, in Halstead, Essex (died in London in 1621) – FFA Chart #EB

Š      William French, chr. ca. 1554 in unknown location, lived in Gosfield, Essex

Š      William French, chr. 25 Jul 1580 in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk – FFA Chart #E1

Š      William French, chr. 6 Apr 1606 in Halstead, as the son of Willia[m] French (immigrated to Billerica, New England)

Š      William French, chr. after 1591 in Halstead (lived in Gosfield, Essex), son of Christopher

Š      William French, chr. 18 Oct 1596 but not in Halstead (could be the same son of Christopher as above)

Š      Anne French, chr. 6 Dec 1587 in Halstead as daughter of Will[ia]m French

Š      Mary French, chr. 1 Nov 1591 in Stisted, Essex, as the dau. of William French

Š      John (Jhon) French, chr. 24 Jun 1599 as son of Willia[m] French in Halstead

Š      Ellen French, bp. 24 Jul 1603 in Halstead as the dau. of Willia[m] French

Š      Thomas French, chr. 10 Nov 1606 in Twinstead, son of William French

Š      Jacob French, chr. 17 Jan 1607/08 in Twinstead, son of William French

Š      Wyll’m (William) Frenche, Sr., chr. 13 or 14 Mar 1584 in Sible Hedingham as the son of Robert

Š      Alse (or Alice) Frenche, b. 24 Jan 1605/6, dau. of William Sr. in Sible Hedingham

Š      Rechard Frenche the sone of Welyam Frenche chr. the 16 of Februarye 1605 in Colchester

Š      Welyam Frenche the sone of John Frenche chr. the 11th of Desembre 1608 in Colchester

Marriages Dates 

Š      William French, widower, married Anne Stevens, widow, on 13 May 1622 in Halstead. This record indicates a second marriage for both.

Š      William French m1. Ellen Scotte on 26 Jul 1573 in Gosfield, Essex, England.

Š      William French, widower, m. Anne Bland, widow, 18 Feb 1640/41, in Halstead.          

Burial Dates

Š      William French, chr. 15 Mar 1602/3 in Halstead, Essex (died in London in 1621) – FFA Chart #EB

Š      3 Dec 1617, Anne French buried, the dau. of William French of Greenstreet in Halstead.

Š      23 Apr 1620, William French of Greenstreet buried in Halstead.

Š      7 Jul 1623 Anne French, widow the wife of William French from The Leete buried in Halstead.

Š      5 Apr 1625 Elizabeth French, widow from The Leete buried in Halstead (no William mentioned).

Š      William French buried on 9 Sep 1604 in Halstead. Also, John French buried 1 Oct 1604 in Halstead. In both cases, no father or widow or wife mentioned.

Š      Willyam Ffrench, peddler, died 4 Sep 1638 in Colchester.

Š      William French, infant, buried 2 Apr 1629 in Pebmarsh.

William French the Emigrant

We know that the William we are looking for who immigrated to Billerica, MA, was born in 1605/6 in Halstead and I have that record. He married a woman named Elizabeth, as listed on the passenger list of 1635. Other researchers say her maiden name was Godfrey or Symmes, but I find nothing conclusive of the sort. In fact, William’s father, also named William, married Elizabeth Symmes as his last wife.

William emigrated with four children from London in July 1635. They were Francis b. 1624/25 (he was William’s youngest brother by his father William French and Elizabeth Symmes); Elizabeth b. 1629; Maria b. 1633; and John b. 1635 (dates according to ship records). They were probably all baptized in America as they were hiding out in England. This is why I was looking in London, but I also heard that they could have taken a ship from Harwich Essex to London because the captain of that ship was first on that ship, and then on the ship Defence that went from London to New England. 

I uncovered some of these unknowns on my trip to all these villages in Essex in June 2010.

Halstead, Gosfield, Great Maplestead, Little Maplestead, plus other villages where Frenches resided: Sible Hedingham, Castle Hedingham, Greenstead Green.

Possible Ancestors of William French

These are the Charts involved for DNA Group 6 Ancestry:

Š      Thomas French, b. ca. 1520, FFA Chart #E1 (line immigrated to New England – DNA Gp 6).

Š      William French, b. 1606, FFA Chart #E2 (line immigrated to New England – DNA Gp 6).

Š      John French, b. ca. 1599, FFA Chart #E3 (line immigrated to New England – DNA Gp 6).

Š      William French, b. ca. 1554, FFA Chart #EA.

Š      Thomas French, b. ca. 1504, FFA Chart #EB.

Š      Christopher French, b. ca. 1560, FFA Chart #EC.

Š      Robert French, b. ca. 1555, FFA Chart #ED.

Outline

(See Analysis)

1.1 Thomas French, b. ca. 1520

      2.1 Thomas French, b. ca. 1551 not in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk.

      2.2 Jacob French, b. ca. 1553 not in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, m. Susann Warren 27 Sep 1578, d. 11 Nov 1615 in Assington

            3.1 William French, chr. 25 Jul 1580 in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk. 

                  4.1 John French, chr. 24 Jun 1599 in Halstead.

                  4.2 Ellen French, chr. 24 Jul 1603 in Halstead.

                  4.3 William French, chr. 6 Apr 1606 in Halstead (born earlier).

                  4.4 Thomas French, chr. 10 Nov 1606 in Twinstead (5 miles NE of Halstead).

                  4.5 Jacob French, chr. 17 Jan 1607/8 in Twinstead (5 miles NE of Halstead).

                  4.6 Francis French, chr. 5 Apr 1625 in Halstead, unrecorded.

The Earliest Records in Halstead of a William French

The earliest vital record (baptism, marriage, burial) in Halstead, Essex, was in 1564.

The earliest christening record for any French in Halstead is Anne French, daughter of William French, christened 6 Dec 1587. On assumption only, this William was probably between the ages of 17 and 40 at Anne’s birth, which would mean he was born between 1547 and 1570, which would indicate that she was the daughter of William French who was b. ca. 1554, FFA Chart #EA.

The earliest marriage record for any French in Halstead is William French, widower, married Anne Stevens, widow, on 13 May 1622. This record indicates a second marriage for both, FFA Chart #E2.

The earliest burial record for any French in Halstead is William French on 9 Sep 1604. No indication is given as to whether this William was married, a widow, an infant, an elderly man, or the child of someone.

As you can see, these men named William French are not all the same man. Not an easy task to separate them, but I had other records to go by that helped.

Greenstreet vs. The Leete

Several times in the vital records, the location of these men named William French is mentioned to indicate they were different men, using Greenstreet and The Leete. Because these vital records are during the same time period (1617-1625), these men named William French were differentiated from one another by their location, but it does not indicate if they were from the same family, such as father and son. Definitely one or both of them must have died by 1625 as the designated location was not carried on past then. William of Greenstreet died on 23 Apr 1620. Only 4 references to these 2 locations exist, and all 4 references are burial records between 1617 and 1625. If these two men named William lived in different villages, they would not have had to identify them as such; therefore, I think both men named William lived in Halstead or the surrounding area.

1.     3 Dec 1617, Anne French buried, the dau. of William French of Greenstreet in Halstead

2.     23 Apr 1620, William French of Greenstreet buried in Halstead

3.      13 May 1622, William French, widower, married Anne Stevens, widow, in Halstead.
         This record indicates a second marriage for both. Neither Greenstreet nor The Leete is indicated.

4.      Date unknown when William French who married Anne Stevens dies.

5.     7 Jul 1623 Anne French, widow the wife of William French from The Leete buried in Halstead.

6.     5 Apr 1625 Elizabeth French, widow from The Leete buried in Halstead (no William mentioned),
         and her husband was also not named, but William was the only French from The Leete.

The William from Greenstreet was definitely the one who had a daughter named Anne who died in 1617, and he died in 1620.

The William from The Leete was definitely the one whose wife, Anne, died as the widow in 1623, the wife of William French from The Leete, and before that to her first husband who was a man named Stevens. The exact reading of this burial notice is somewhat confusing in itself: Anne French widow the wife of William French from The Leete was buried the 7th of July (1623), but my researcher in Essex, Peter Nutt, along with the Archivist at the Essex Record Office state that the sentence should read:

Anne buried widow formerly the wife of William French from The Leete.

However, the FFA disagrees in part with this research. We believe it could read:

Anne buried widow of Stevens, the wife of William French from The Leete.

Usually if a woman dies and she is a widow, her husband’s name is not mentioned if he had also died, but in this case, Stevens died but not French. Besides that, when a widow dies, I have rarely or never seen her deceased husband’s name mentioned.

Here's an example of a woman marrying a man, she was a widow, and it names her husband who died. 

Another woman named Elizabeth French was from The Leete, a widow, died on 5 Apr 1625 as Elizabeth French, widow from The Leete, and was perhaps married to William French of The Leete (because she was a widow), but she herself was not of French blood. She could have been the last wife of William of The Leete, and she died in childbirth from delivering son Francis, born 5 Apr 1625. Francis could have accompanied his older brother William French (the emigrant) on the ship Defence to New England in 1635. Francis’ voyage at age 10 with William French definitely shows a very close family connection as brothers. Francis was not the emigrant’s son because in William the emigrant’s will, he specifically states that he gives to all his children, but the name Francis does not appear. William remained in Massachusetts and Francis moved to Connecticut. This is all conjecture on my part. There is no other male French who could have married Elizabeth other than William. And Elizabeth wasn’t a sister of William, because her burial record of 1625 states that she was a widow. This connection is still a mystery.

Relationship between Families Scrogges, Burton, Symmes, Man, French, and Harlakenden

I've definitely figured out the relationship between William French and Elizabeth Symmes and Sara Simms, all of whom people have thought were on the ship Defence to New England in 1635.

William French of The Leete in Halstead was the father of William French the emigrant and it was this father who married Elizabeth Symmes, and she died in 1625. Elizabeth Symmes was the daughter of Randall Symmes. Elizabeth's sister was Dorothy Symmes and her brother was named after their father, Randall. Randall Symmes had 11 children. His on Richard Symmes had daughter Sara Simms. This shows that Sara Simms and Elizabeth Symmes were in 2 different generations. 

William French of The Leete and Elizabeth French had son Francis French in 1625. Therefore, Francis French was not the son nor nephew of William French the emigrant, but he was his youngest brother by a different mother. This shows from later reports why he was very close to him in a bloodline, but did not give to him in his will as he was not one of his children. He took him to New England with him on the ship Defence probably because both of Francis' parents had died. I have his mother's burial record and it states that she was a widow, but I do not have the record of William's burial. In any case, Francis has 100% French blood, and his line continues in FFA Chart #8. Perhaps I can find someone in that blood line to take the DNA test to verify these findings.

But what this could mean is that the 3 lines that connect to DNA Test Group 6 came from the eastern part of Essex, much closer to London. Albury is only about 20 minutes from London by car. Best to look in that area and not in Suffolk. For example, Sara Simms was born in London. She was bethrothed to Jonas Man, the son of Thomas Man, but this marriage never took place as Sara immigrated to New England. Her father had died in 1624 and I don't know who her mother was.

See Relationship between Families Scrogges, Burton, Symmes, Man, French, and Harlakenden.

First Generation

1.1* Thomas French, b. ca. 1520 most likely in Essex County, England. Not much is known about this Thomas, other than we can suspect that the name Jacob, an uncommon name for any French family in England, could tell us that any Jacob French in this part of England was from this line. At this point, we are unsure if the name Jacob came from Thomas’ family or that of his wife’s family. The first two generations of this family are the same as FFA Chart #E1 which has the same DNA Test Results, Group 6.

Second Generation

Children of Thomas French, 1.1

2.1 Thomas French [23], b. ca. 1551 but not in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, as those records have been checked. Nothing is noted for this Thomas. He would have married ca. 1570-1580.

2.2* Jacob French [1] [23], b. ca. 1553 but not in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, as those records have been checked. Jacob m. Susann Warren [1] 27 Sep 1578 at Bures St. Mary in Suffolk Co., which is right on the border along the Stour River which runs between Suffolk and Essex Counties. Assington is adjacent to Bures in the north. Jacob moved to Assington ca. 1585/86 or transferred church affiliation there [4]. At this time, Bury St. Mary was part of Assington, owned mostly by the Gurdon family [12]. Thomas Sr. occupied a farm located in Assington called Garlands. See Ref. [31]. It was owned by John Gurdon.

Jacob d. 11 Nov 1615 in Assington [26]. No probate records for Jacob have been found in the indexes for the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, Archdeaconry Courts of Sudbury, of Essex, or the Consistory Court of Norwich. Only 20 years after Jacob’s death, almost all of his family immigrated to New England.

Susan Warren was probably either the dau. or grand-daughter of William and Katherine Warren of Bures St. Mary. Two generations in a row had the names William and Katherine Warren [25]. Katherine Warren married John Ansell 1 Feb 1558/59 but not in Bures St. Mary.

Elizabeth Warren died young and her husband, William Siday, may have m3. Elizabeth French. The name Susan Warren is not mentioned as a child of William and Katherine Warren, this being the Susan Warren who came from the exact same village, was born about 1553, and who m. Jacob French 27 Sep 1578 in Bures St. Mary.

The administration of William Warren’s estate was granted to Katherine, his wife, on Sep. 26, 1554 in Essex. He died intestate. Katherine's will, dated July 31, 1567 but not in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, as those records have been checked. This will was proved Jan. 1570/1 in Essex [5]. Katherine, in her will of 1567, bequeathed to and specifically named four grandchildren, yet failed to give the names of her four young children. Thus, Susan might have been one of these four young ones. See Ref. [33].

(No more Frenches christened in Bures St. Mary)

Map of the districts in Essex County, photographed from the bulletin board in St. Augustine Church, Birdbrook, Essex.

Third Generation

Children of Jacob and Susann (Warren) French, 2.2

Because Jacob and Susann were married in Bures St. Mary on 27 Sep 1578, it would seem logical that William, who was christened on 25 Jul 1580 also in Bures St. Mary, would be their first child. For Jacob’s other children, please see FFA Chart #E1.

3.1* William French, chr. 25 Jul 1580 in Bures St. Mary, Suffolk, according to the Bures St. Mary Vital Records starting in 1538, FL540/4/1. He was named after his grandfather on his mother’s side, William Warren. See Ref. [33]. William m1. between 1603-1605, but not in Bures St. Mary nor in Twinstead. We do not find this record.

In reviewing Ref. [32], one can see that possibly by 1 Apr 1627 there was still a William French living in Twinstead. No further record has been found for him. This could mean that the William French who had children Jacob and Thomas in Twinstead in 1606-1607 could have still had connections there in 1627. 

William moved with his parents to Assington, Suffolk, in 1586 when he was 6 years old. He remained there until ca. 1598, age 18, when he moved to Halstead, in Essex county. While in Halstead, he was known as William French of The Leete to distinguish himself from William French of Greenstreet.

Marriages

William m1. Elizabeth (no source here) in the Halstead area, ca. 1598, and may have had 2 young children who died in infancy: William French who died 9 Sep 1604 and John French who died 1 Oct 1604 in Halstead. This has definitely not been proved, and the burial record of these two males does not indicate who their father was, nor does it indicate if they were infants, adults, youngsters, or widowers. William had two sons by these same names, John and William, later on. All William’s children were from his first wife. She died before 1622. Note: She could not have been Elizabeth Symmes, dau. of Randall Symmes, because that Elizabeth Symmes was born in 1594.

William m2. Anne Stevens on 13 May 1622 in Halstead, both having been married previously. The record is listed as “William French widower and Anne Stevens widow were married the 13th of May 1622”, which is also listed in Boyd’s Marriage Index. See D/P 96/1/1, Image 79, see image below. This indicates that both William’s and Anne’s spouses died before 1622. Anne’s first husband had the surname Stevens. William’s father, Jacob, had died 7 years earlier in 1615 when William was 35. The image below does not indicate that William nor Anne were of The Leete. However, the next image after this one, giving the names William and Anne French, shows that they were from The Leete.

Anne died only 14 months later on 7 Jul 1623, D/P 96/1/1, Image 116, below:

“Anne French widow and (formerly?) the wife of William French from The Leete was buried the seventh of July” which would mean that William was no longer living, but no record has been found.

or . . .

“Anne French widow (widow of Stevens?) the wife of William French from The Leete was buried the seventh of July which would mean that William was still living.

This could indicate that William died between 13 May 1622 and 7 Jul 1623. No burial record appears for William, but the entire French family from The Leete has no more records in Halstead as of 1625 using the terminology “The Leete” or “Greenstreet”, probably because the William of Greenstreet had died in 1620 and no differentiation between the two was needed. Also note that this burial record shown above states “The Leete”, but the marriage record before it does not, so that record could be of another William. We do not know for sure.

Anne Stevens: Mary Bowles who was bp. 5 Jan 1634 in Earl’s Colne, Essex, m. Edward Stevens (widower) on 25 Aug 1664 in Earls Colne. Mary Stevens was buried 24 Feb 1691 in Earls Colne. This data could indicate that the Stevens family was from Earls Colne, the same town in which Roger Harlakenden resided. Roger Harlakenden and the son of William French of The Leete, William French, immigrated on the ship Defence to New England in Jul 1635.

John Stevens alias Faure of Great Wakering, woolen draper, wrote his will on 1 Feb 1622/23. He may have been the husband of Anne Stevens, D/AEW 17/101; however, using the Old Calendar, it shows this is not the correct Stevens; Ann Stevens married William French on 13 May 1622 which is before John Stevens wrote his will. In any case, Great Wakering is a far distance from Halstead.

William m3. Elizabeth Symmes, ca. 1623. She was b. 30 Nov 1594, the dau. of Randall Symmes and Ann Burton of St. Lawrence Pountney, London.

Elizabeth Symmes was therefore 14 years younger than William. In this large family, the name “Francis” appears often; therefore, they named their son Francis. At the time of his birth, probably on 5 Apr 1625, Elizabeth was 31 and William was 45 years old. Elizabeth died in childbirth with Francis on 5 Apr 1625. Francis was taken care of initially by one of the Symmes women who acted as a wet nurse at that time. By 10 years old in 1635, Francis joined his older brother, William, and immigrated to New England. At that time, in 1635, his older brother William was 30, as shown on the ship Defence record. So far no baptism record of Francis exists.

Elizabeth died as the widowe from The Leete and was buried 5 Apr 1625, D/P 96/1/1, Image 118 (below).

Genealogies of the Families Burton, Scroggs, Symmes, and Harlakenden in connection with the French Family

See more on these families. Top of Form

Burton’s Green (below)  is an area just south of Greenstead Green in Halstead and just a mile NW of Earl’s Colne where Roger Harlakenden lived.

Court Records

1612 – William was 32 and a weaver on 4 Jun 1612 in Halstead, when he had to keep peace [4], indicating that he was an adult at that time. In specific it says “William Frenche, Thomas Pilgryme a yeoman, and William Baylyfe alias Smyth a tailor, were all of Halstead. French to keep the peace toward Richard Harrold, Court Record Q/SR 199/127 at the Essex Record Office, 5 Jun 1612.

All four of the following men were adults in 1612; therefore, they were all born before 1590.

Thomas Pilgrym was in a court case on 28 Oct 1602 in Halstead where his sheep were stolen, Q/SR 160/148. Thomas was also a loving friend of Francis Burton of Halstead as mentioned in Francis’ will of 1611.
William Baylyfe alias Smyth was the owner of Green Street Hall.
William Smythe was in a court case in 1592 with Robert Bryan and Robert Manfield, D/DMh/T119 from SEAX. The date of this document would indicate that William Smythe was born long before 1570. William Smythe was the owner of Stanstead Hall.

1617 – Court record of 5 Jun 1617 recognizances of William Frenche, age 32, weever, Nathan Wade grocer, both of Halstead, and John Diglett of Colne Engaine miller, Frenche to answer. Q/SR 218/45.

The Leete

William was known as William French from The Leete in Halstead between 1617 and 1625.

The word Leete was used in a court, or as a surname, or as a location. In William French’s case, I believe it was used in a court, which would also mean that he and he alone was the member of The Leete, whereas with the term Greenstreet, it could mean the entire French family.

In a court:
Because the Leete was a type of manor court, the term was sometimes used also to describe an area or premise within the jurisdiction of a particular manor.

I have noticed from searching other records involving the word Leete, that when it is used as a court, it is not in quotes. But when it is used as a location, it is used with quotes, such as – near to the “Leete” and is also capitalized. Various times it is also referred to as the court Leete or the sheriff’s Leete.

Leete could stand for leet, a territorial division, a manorial court, or its jurisdiction. It might mean the manor estate where perhaps William French was an employee or tenant directly under the lord of the manor. In this case William, as a member of The Leete court, would have been a valuable person for Roger Harlakenden to accompany him to New England.

OF THE LEETE OR LAWE DAY. 
Chap. 18, DEREPVBLICAANGLORVM

The maner of governement or policie of the Realme of Englande, 
compiled by the honorable 
man Thomas Smyth, Doctor of the 
civil lawes, Knight, and Principall 
Secretarie vnto the two most worthie 
Princes, King Edwarde the sixt, 
and Queene Elizabeth.

Seene and allowed.

AT LONDON, 
Printed by Henrie Midleton for Gregorie Seton.

Anno Domini 
1583.

Leete or law day is not incident to everie mannor, but to those onely which by special graunt, or long prescription have such libertie. This was as may appeare first a speciall trust and confidence and commission given to a fewe put in trust by the Prince, as is nowe to the Justices of peace, to see men sworne to the Prince, that ruled to take pledges and suerties in that maner of one for an other to answere for obedience and truth, to enquire of privie conspiracies, fraies, murders, and bloudsheddes, and to this was added the oversight of bread and ale, and other measures. Many times they which be out of the homage and court Baron of that mannor and Lordship, be nevertheless astreined and answerable to come to the Leete. This Leete is ordinarily kept but twise in the yeare, and that at termes and times prescribed.

The Leete and Lawe day is all one, and betokeneth worde for worde, legittimum or iuridicum diem. Lawe the olde Saxons called lant or lag, and so by corruption and chaunge[5] of language from Lant to Leete, understanding day. They which keepe our full english terme, call it yet lawe day.

The following document mentions the adjoining parishes of Halstead and Maplestead versus the word “Leete”, from The Essex Review, edited by Edward A. Fitch, London, 1893.

Also see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Court_leet

As a surname:

Many families in England used the surname Leete. In fact, Reverend Henry Whitfield led a group of about 250 Puritans on 20 May 1639 from London on the St. John to Guilford, CT. William Leete was one of the 22 immigrants who signed the Guilford Covenant. This voyage concerns Thomas French of FFA Chart #E9. However, the surname is also spelled “Leake”. In this particular case with the French family, no family is mentioned named Leete.

As a location:
The Leete, such as Stanstead Leete, from Old English is a watercourse, aqueduct, or canal. The Colne River passes through Halstead, but is a mile north of Stanstead Leete. Record Q/SR 477/28 of 13 Jun 1693 talks about Stansted Leete in Halstead. Because of Stansted Leete and the fact that FFA Chart #E2 has several connections with FFA Chart #EB, who directly lived at Stanstead Hall in Halstead, I would assume that this entire family was considered of “The Leete” wealthy class who made various court decisions and lived in and around Stanstead Hall. However, the Leete is not mentioned regarding a person named French in FFA Chart #EB, which is the main chart connected to Stanstead Hall. Another point to remember is that Thomas French of Stanstead Hall in FFA Chart #EB sold this property in 1620, yet the word Leete is mentioned up to 1625.

Fourth Generation

Children of William of The Leete and Elizabeth French, 3.1

All of William’s children were from his first wife, Elizabeth, except the last child, who was from his third wife.

4.1 John (Jhon) French [1], bp. 24 Jun 1599 as son of Willia[m] in Halstead, D/P 96/1/1, Image 33.

There is a confusion between this son, John, and the John French, son of Jacob and Susann (Warren) French of FFA Chart #E1. Both of these men named John have the same DNA test results. The John French, son of Jacob, was baptized 27 Mar 1596 in Assington, and m1. Sarah probably about 1620, and had daughter, Sarah, who was buried in Assington on 22 Jan 1620/21 (a record exists of this burial). Researchers contend that the Assington John French married Sarah and not the Halstead John French because of the name of their daughter who died in Assington. The Halstead John married Joan.

For continuation of John French, see FFA Chart #E3.

4.2 Ellen French [1], bp. 24 Jul 1603 in Halstead as the dau. of Willia[m] [8], D/P  96/1/1, Image 36.

No more data has been found on this daughter. During the years 1603-1604, an epidemic caused many deaths in Halstead, including the deaths of “a” John French and “a” William French both in 1604. No further description of these deaths was given in the parish register indicating if they were infants, adults, widowers, or husbands, and no father was listed. Does anyone know who these two were?

4.3* William French, chr. 6 Apr 1606 in Halstead, England [15] as the son of Willia[m] French. See image below, D/P 96/1/1, Image 38, from the ERO (SEAX) below. Named after his father.

Considering the Old Calendar ran from March 25 to March 24 of the next year:

In calculating William’s birth date from his christening date, William’s will was dated 5 Jun 1679 in which he says he was 76 years old, which makes his birth date between 6 May 1602 and 5 Jun 1603. William died 20 Nov 1681, in his 78th year, which makes his birth date between 19 Nov 1602 and 20 Nov 1603. Assuming the above is correct, William had to be born between 19 Nov 1602 and 5 Jun 1603 (7 months of discrepancy). Why was he christened 3-4 years after he was born? These dates were figured by Scott French.

In calculating his birth according to the ship Defence passenger list in July 1635 where William French is listed as 30 years old, on 6 Apr 1606 he would have been 31 years old because the old calendar started on Mar 25. To be considered 30 years old, he would have had to be born only two week earlier, March 24, 1606.

The Cambridge Historical Society published proceedings from 25 Jan 1916 to 24 Oct 1916 about the French family at Stansted Hall. On p. 95 it states that William French was baptized in Halstead in 1606, son of William French of “The Leete”. 

In 1620 when his father died, William was only 14 years old. His mother had died when he was only 17 in 1623. No further notice appears of “this” William French in Halstead until he appears in London in 1635. We need to find his residence in order to find his marriage and christenings of his children.

Note: This is not the William who was b. 15 Mar 1602/3 in Halstead. See Chart #EB for information on that William.

Marriages

Many researchers suggest the following:

William French m1. Elizabeth perhaps on 20 Nov 1631 who died 31 Mar 1668, age 62, in Billerica, MA.

She may have been Elizabeth Cannon, bap. 11 Sep 1603 at St. Mary, Harrow, Middlesex, England who married “a” William French in 1625 at St. Antholin, London. William’s first child, Elizabeth, was born in 1629, but this early marriage could have taken place because William was caring for his younger brother, Francis, who was born in 1625.

Other researchers suggest that William French married Elizabeth Godfrey. No evidence of this exists, but the name Godfrey shows up in the Halstead area. On 13 Jul 1591, the name Joan Godfrey, spinster, shows up in Halstead for not going to church in Q/SR 119/44. Grace and Rose Godfrey of High Easter, spinsters, shows up in 1574, Q/SR 49/8. John Godfrey of Ingatestone, spinster, 1582, Q/SR 83/49. Joan Godrey of Ingatestone, spinster, 1582, Q/SR 83/46.

The name Godfrey also shows up in County Kent as follows: Elizabeth was the dau. of Edward Godfrey (born 1584) and Elizabeth Oliver [25]. Edward was b. in 1584 in Wilmington, Kent, England, the son of Oliver Godfrey and Elizabeth Toye. Elizabeth Oliver was the dau. of William Oliver. Although Edward Godfrey lived in Maine between 1629 to 1655, he died on 28 Feb 1664 at Ludgate Prison in London, England. They had 3 children: Oliver, Elizabeth, and Mary. No record has been found of an Elizabeth Godfrey married to Wm French [30].

Ancestry.com shows a Francis Godfrey who m. Elizabeth Hall. He was b. ca. 1600 and d. 30 Jul 1669 in Massachusetts. They had daughter Elizabeth Godfrey, b. ca. 1623, d. 1 Nov 1680 in Massachusetts.

William m2. Mary Lathrop Stearns, widow of John Stearns, the dau. of Thomas Lathrop of Barnstable, on 6 May 1669 after his last wife, Elizabeth, died on 31 Mar 1668 at age 62. William died in 1681, and Mary Lathrop Stearns French Isaac Mixer of Watertown, as his third wife, on 29 Jun 1687. William and Mary (Lathrop) French had 4 daughters all born in Billerica, MA: Mary 30 Apr 1670; Sarah 29 Oct 1671; Abigail 14 Apr 1673; Hannah 25 Jan 1675/76.

Other Possibilities:
A proven marriage record has not yet been found. There was “an” Elizabeth French (nee French) was christened 30 Oct 1602 in Terling, Essex. Elizabeth may have been the mother of Francis French who was born in 1625. This birth date, 30 Oct 1602, equates to her being exactly 32 ½ years old in July 1635 when the ship Defence left London. William is listed with his wife, Elizabeth, age 32, on the ship passenger list. No other record of an Elizabeth has been found except this one and one of Elizabeth Cannon. This marriage may never have taken place – we need more research (see her ancestry in England). It was the custom for marriages to take place in the bride’s hometown.

There are 19 records in Boyd’s Marriage Index of a William French who married between 1620 and 1635. Most applicable are, of course, those showing wife Elizabeth, and there are only 2, both in London:

1625 – William and Elizabeth Cannon at St. Antholin

1620 – William and Elizabeth Edwards of St. Botolph Without Bishop Gate

Homestead between 1625-1635

Because William French is listed in Twinstead on 1 Apr 1627, Q/SR 257/72, the village where two of his children were born, it is very possible that he stayed there until he immigrated to New England. In 1620 his father died. In 1623 his mother died. He may have returned to Twinstead, as no documents have been found for William in Greenstreet or Halstead. However, no vital records for a French were found in Twinstead between 1625-1635.

Apparently “a” French family stayed in Twinstead as there was a John French who married Elizabeth Fox in Jul 1643, D/P 212/1/1, Image 41.

So, when all is said and done, we have no idea where William French lived between 1625-1635, although it must have been near Earls Colne as he was very well acquainted with Roger Harlakenden in 1635.

Burial

William was christened 6 Apr 1606, but perhaps he was actually born in March 1606, which would have been in the previous year of 1605 according to the old calendar which ended yearly on Mar 31. If he were considered born in 1605 only a month before he was baptised, his age of 30 when he boarded the ship Defence in July 1635 would be correct.

To check other dates, if he died on 20 Nov 1681, he would have been 77 ½ counting back to Apr 1606, or he would have been considered "in his 78th year". When he wrote his will June 1679, he stated he was "about 76", which might have meant he was almost 76, but still only 75. But if he were born in March and wrote his will in June, why would he use the term “about 76”? The old calendar of the time ran from March 25, 1605 to March 24, 1606.

Other Records in England

From the National Archives at the KEW in London: Certificate of residence showing William French to be liable for taxation in London, and not in the hundreds of Barstable and Chafford, Essex, the previous area of tax liability, 1625-1626. E 115/156/51. It is not known which William French this was. My researcher in Essex, Peter Nutt, tells me that there are no such parishes as Barstable or Chafford – these are Hundreds, i.e., a division of the county of Essex.

The Cambridge Historical Society published proceedings from 25 Jan 1916 to 24 Oct 1916 about the French family at Stansted Hall. On p. 95 it states that William French was baptized in Halstead in 1606, son of William French of “The Leete”. Note: This is not the William who was b. 15 Mar 1602/3 in Halstead. See FFA Chart #EB for information on that William.

1628 - Court record of 8 Oct 1628 recognizances of John Ellingham, William French, and Henry Ellingham, weaver; John to keep the peace to Elizabeth Evans; all of Foxearth. Q/SR 264/61. William French’s family may have moved to Foxearth near Harwick, England, as they first sailed from Harwick in 1634. Try to find baptism records in Foxearth between 1629 and 1635. There is also a Foxearth in Essex County very near the border of Suffolk.

Immigration to New England from Fenchurch, London

Fenchurch Street ca. 1750

William immigrated during the summer of 1635 on the Defence [14] from St. Gabriel Fenchurch, London (an area and nowadays a street, not a church), England. Ship list says William was 30 in July 1635. Because his christening date is only 6 days from the Old Calendar year of 1605 which ended the last day in March 1605, William’s age of 30 when he immigrated to America in 1635 would fit perfectly. It is, however, clearly marked in the parish register as one of the first entries for 1606; he could have been born in 1605 and christened a week later.

Because William was had expertise working with his father in a Leete position in the Greenstreet court, he was a great asset to Roger Harlakenden when emigrating to New England, and also including William’s skills as a weaver.

Reverend Thomas Shepard was born in Towcester near Northampton (or Northumberland???) on 5 Nov 1605, a contemporary of William French who accompanied each other on the ship Defence to New England. John Shepard was a pseudonym for Thomas Shepard.

Having, accordingly, preached his farewell sermon at Newcastle-upon Tyne, Northumberland, England, Rev. Thomas Shepard (who accompanied William French to the new world) went in disguise to Ipswich, Suffolk County, England, and thence to Earl’s Colne, Essex County, England, where Roger Harlakenden lived; whence, accompanied by Mr. Norton, he went to Yarmouth, intending to embark there for New England. Pursuivants, however, were employed to apprehend him. These pursuivants having discovered Mr. Shepard’s quarters, had, by a sum of money, obtained a promise, from a boy belonging to the house where he lodged, to open the door for them at a certain hour of the night. But by the singular providence of God, the design was frustrated. Some serious expressions of Mr. Shepard being uttered in the hearing of this boy, he was struck with horror at the thought, that he should be so wicked as to betray so good a man; and, with tears, discovered the whole plot to his pious master, who took care immediately to convey Mr. Shepard out of the reach of his enemies [45].


Toward the close of the year 1634, Mr. Shepard embarked at Harwich, Essex.

Mr. Shepard in his Autobiography gives the following: "Divers people in Old England of my dear friends desired me to go to New England there to live together, and I saw divers families of my Christian friends who were resolved thither to go with me. Accordingly in the beginning of the winter 1634 we started. (They embarked at Harwick.) We were driven back by stress of weather and the voyage was abandoned. But about August 10, 1635, we again embarked in the ship 'Defence' and so the Lord after many sad storms and wearisome days and many longings to see the shore brought us to the sight of it upon October 2, 1635 [after 54 days at sea], and upon Oct. 3, we landed at Boston." For more, see The Works of Thomas Shepard: First Pastor of the Church of Cambridge MA, on Google Book Search and The AutoBiography of Thomas S.hepard by Nehemiah Adams.

After Mr. Shepard’s embarkment at Harwich, in a few hours the ship was driven back into Yarmouth road, where arose one of the most tremendous storms ever known. The ship was almost miraculously saved, but so materially damaged that the proposed voyage was relinquished. Mr. Shepard, after spending the winter at Bastwick (I assume this is in Norfolk), went, in the spring, to London, where, by a removal of his lodgings, he again narrowly escaped his pursuivants. In July, he sailed from Gravesend (on the Thames River just east of London, but in Essex County), and, on the third of October 1635, after a hazardous voyage, he arrived at Boston. His friends at Newtown (now called Cambridge) soon conducted him to that infant settlement, destined to be the field of his future labours [45[.

William French (age 30) and his wife Elizabeth (age 32) were sworn in on the ship Defence on 4 Jul 1635. William’s children were also sworn in on the ship on 4 July 1635: Elizabeth (age 6), Marie (age 2), Francis (age 10), and Jo (of John) (age 5 mos), along with Elizabeth French (age 30). This second Elizabeth was a caretaker for the children. My thought is that she was a close member of the family, maybe a sister or William, born in 1605 (but then they would be twins and no Elizabeth is listed for William’s family in the parish register. They boarded at the same time as Roger Harlakenden and his family. Also in this group was Robert (an adult man, last name unknown) and Sarra Simes, age 30, both servants of Roger Harlakenden who boarded right after William and Elizabeth French in the same group. Some genealogists believe Sarra Simms, 30, also listed, was Elizabeth’s sister. But most important is that two others besides William and Eliza French are listed as servants of Roger Harlakenden, and they are: Robert, a man Servant; and Sarra Simes 30 Servant.

Many passengers who sailed on the Defence originally started out on another unknown ship from Ipswich or Harwich, Essex in 1634. The ship ran into a terrific storm in the North Sea and the main mast was chopped down to save her from foundering, and they drifted into Yarmouth almost a wreck – is this Isle of Wight or Norwich? Rev. Thomas Shepard of Dunstable, England, was on this first ship and later concealed himself and changed his name to John Shepard and sailed with Roger Harlakenden, who was originally from Earls Colne, Essex (with whom he had been hiding in London), on the Defence which arrived in Boston on 2 Oct 1635. Shipmaster was Mr. Edward Pearce who later changed his name to Thomas Boylson and was from the Minister of St. Gabriel Fenchurch, London, age 20 [15] [16] [14] [3]. There are no French vital record in Earls Colne where Roger Harlakenden resided [24].

Passengers boarded the Defence from 20 Jun - 18 Jul 1635. The Ship Defence indicates the ship sailed at the end of July 1635 and arrived at Boston Oct 8, 1635.

The British History Online lists the inhabitants of St. Gabriel Fenchurch in 1638, only 3 years after William French departed. Thomas Boylston who emigrated with William French in 1635 on the Defence is listed at this church.

Before 1665, London shows 97 parishes within the city itself. St. Gabriel Fenchurch was one of them. It was situated in the middle of Fenchurch Street until 1665 when the city lay in ruins and 86 churches were destroyed by fire. St. Gabriel Fenchurch was never rebuilt. The church was first mentioned in 1321. No French is listed at St. Gabriel Fenchurch [35].

The following record is from the Public Record Office (PRO), Chancery Lane, London WC2A, 1LR and ask for document XPO430, 28-9-90, Ref. E157/20. Note that the listing for Robert following Eliza shows that he was a man gentleman, therefore not a child. No surname is given.

Note the names at the bottom: Elizabeth ffrench – 30; Elizabeth ffrench – 6; Maria ffrench – 2 ½; ffrancis ffrench – 10; Jo (John) ffrench – 5 mo.

Roger Harlakenden was chr. 1 Oct 1611 in Earls Colne and d. 17 Nov 1638 in Cambridge, MA.

Also listed as a passenger on the Defence is Sarra Simes, 30, as a servant to Roger Harlakenden [15]. Perhaps Sarra Simes who never married was a sister of Elizabeth, hence the prediction of Elizabeth’s maiden name Symmes [4]; however, Sara was a generation later than Elizabeth. Another researcher suggests that William French married Elizabeth Symmes who was b. 1605 in England and died 31 Mar 1668 in Billerica, MA, the daughter of Randall Symmes and Ann Burton. Roger Harlakenden’s first wife, Emlyn Scroggs, was a first cousin of Elizabeth Symmes. This would mean that Elizabeth’s aunt (a Scroggs) married a Symmes and they had daughter Elizabeth Symmes, or Elizabeth’s aunt on her mother’s side (a Burton) married a Symmes.

Was William an Indentured Servant?

William French did not immigrate as an indentured servant. As he had Leete (Court) status over the jurisdiction in southern Halstead very close to where Roger Harlakenden resided in Earls Colne, he probably accompanied Roger on the Defence in anticipation of using those skills in the New World. The Colonial Travelers of 1635 [29] describes this idea quite well:

Anne Wood mentioned above was chr. 22 Apr 1611 in Leyton, Essex, the dau. of Toby Wood, so she was 24 years old when she immigrated. Joseph Cooke was chr. in 1608 in Pebmarsh, married Elizabeth in 1642 in Cambridge, MA, and d. May 1699 in Pebmarsh in his homeland. George Cooke was chr. 18 Jun 1611 in Great Whelentham, Suffolk, and was the son of William Cooke.

It is strange that William’s children who boarded the next day are not mentioned in the above article. Perhaps they were actually his brother John’s children. This needs more research.

Who Was the Other Elizabeth French on the Ship Defence?

On July 2?, 1635, William French and his wife Elizabeth boarded the ship Defence. He was age 30 and she was age 32, listed as his wife.

On July 4, 1635, Elizabeth French, age 30, boarded the ship Defence with 4 children whom we will deal with later as to whom they belonged to. This Elizabeth French was born in 1605 as she was 30 in 1635. Because her surname is “French”, she must have been:

1. A very close family member acting as “au pair” for the 4 children

2. William’s sister. William had a sister, Ellen, born in 1603, but not much is known about her. He did not have a sister named Elizabeth.

3. The wife of one of William’s brothers or other relatives

4. The daughter of one of William’s relatives

5. The mother of one of the 4 children

Other Passengers on the Ship Defence

On July 4, the London port clerks dutifully inscribed the names of a group of eleven men and women who traveled together, bound for New England aboard the ship Defence. This collection of neighbors, relations, master, servants, and patron were headed by Roger Harlakenden, a 23-year old gentleman and a second son from Earls Colne, essex. The Harlakenden family was a distinguished one in Essex. The Harlakenden family had offered protection to the nonconformist clerk Thomas Shepard after he fell foul of the Laudian regime. With Roger Harlakenden was his wife, Elizabeth, and his younger sister, Mabel. Accompanying the privileged Harlakendens were eight other people: five men and three women, identified as their servants. And three of them, Anne Wood, Sarra Simes, and one Robert (with no reported last name), probably were servants. But the other five were not. They included the brothers Joseph and George Cooke, the yeoman sons of an Essex neighbor; William French and his wife Elizabeth; and one Samuel Shepard. This Samuel Shepard was, in fact, the brother of the former Earls Colne minister Thomas Shepard. Disguised as servants and protected by a gentleman, Shepard, French, and the Cooke brothers, all nonconformists, were able to secure permission to depart England, permission they could not obtain on their own behalf. Journeying with friends, neighbors, and a wealthy protector, these men and women made their way to London from Earls Coln with some trepedation about their experiences at the port, but buffered by their kin. Roger Harlakenden died soon after his arrival in New England; within three years, he fell victim to smallpox, leaving behind his wife and daughters [57].

Joseph Cocke was a passenger on the ship Defence with William, b. 1608 in Pebmarsh, m. Elizabeth in 1642 in Cambridge, MA. Joseph d. May 1699 in Pebmarsh in his homeland.

George Cocke was also a passenger, from Great Whelentham, Suffolk, b. 18 Jun 1611, the son of William Cocke.

Anne Wood, chr. 22 Apr 1611 in Leyton, Essex, dau. of Toby Wood.

Sarra Simes may have been regarded by the Harlakenden family as a maidservant of sorts, but she was also a family friend with well-placed relations. She referred to John Stedman and William French as her brothers in her will (Genealogical Gleanings, NEHGR 48 [1894], p. 126 [57].

4.4 Thomas French, bp. 10 Nov 1606 in Twinstead, son of William (Wm) as shown below. He was probably named after his uncle, Thomas French. D/P 212/1/1, Image 28.

Thomas was an adult in 1624 and perhaps married and had children. This family could very well have been the Thomas French of Stisted. The research on the French family of Stisted will be added by the end of the year 2010. Well, after some research, it seems he is not the correct Thomas French; baptisms for Thomas French in Stisted start in 1618, which is too early, and baptisms of this Thomas of Stisted continue until 1631. See Parish Records in England.

4.5 Jacob French, bp. 17 Jan 1607/08 in Twinstead, son of William (Wm) as shown below. There are only these two Frenches mentioned in Twinstead Baptism Parish Register [11] [14]. The name “Jacob” was a very unusual name for a French ancestor, as hardly any Jacob French existed in early records of Essex; therefore, it is assumed that Jacob was named after his grandfather, Jacob French. D/P 212/1/1, Image 28.

Children of William of The Leete and Elizabeth French, 3.1

4.6 Francis French, chr. 5 Apr 1625 in Halstead, born 17 years after William’s last child. He immigrated with his older brother, William, on the ship Defence in 1635 to New England when he was 10 years old. He m. Lydia Bunnell on 10 Apr 1661 in New Haven, New Haven Co., CT, and he d. 14 Feb 1691 in Derby, New Haven Co., CT. He was the ancestor of the large group of Frenches who migrated down the Ohio River to Beaumont, TX, where 7 generations of the French family live there today. This line continues with FFA Chart #8. Francis had 8 children: Lydia, named after his wife; Elizabeth, named after his mother; Anna; Mary; Lydia after the first daughter died; Samuel; Susanna; and Francis.

Fifth Generation

Listed here are only the children born in England. To continue this ancestry, also go to FFA Chart #2.

Children of William and Elizabeth French, 4.1

William’s first 4 children were born in England, but we do not have those records of births. William, his wife Elizabeth, and these 4 children immigrated to Cambridge, MA in Jul 1635. Passengers boarded the Defence from 20 Jun - 18 Jul 1635. The Ship Defence indicates the ship sailed at the end of July 1635 and arrived at Boston Oct 8, 1635. "Now one cause of our going at this time of winter was, because we were persecuted in Old England for the truth of Christ, which we profess here. We durst not stay to make ourselves known, which would have been at the baptizing of the child. Hence we hastened for New-England." Because of this statement, few baptisms were accounted for at this time.

NOTE: Francis French, christened in 1624/25, listed as age 10 on 5 Jul 1635. No birth record has been found. Ref [19] lists Francis as the son of William and Elizabeth French, born in London, but he was not the son of William the emigrant to Billerica, but the son of his father, William French. Francis imigrated to America at 10 years old in 1635 [13] with his brother, William [18]. Francis moved from Billerica, MA to Milford and then Derby, CT. Edward Wooster and Francis were the first two landowners in Derby, CT [12]. "Now one cause of our going at this time of winter was, because we were persecuted in Old England for the truth of Christ, which we profess here. We durst not stay to make ourselves known, which would have been at the baptizing of the child. Hence we hastened for New-England." (This chart is continued with FFA Chart #8).

William French specifically says in his will that he is giving to all his children and/or grandchildren; however, Francis, who had a large family in Derby, CT, at his father’s death, was not mentioned.

Note: Edward Wooster (varied spelling) was the brother of Rev. William Worcester according to “Genealogy of Woosters in America” Ref. [17]. Edward Wooster accompanied Francis French (FFA Chart #8) to Connecticut from Boston, and they were the first two settlers of Milford, CT, and later Derby, CT. Francis French emigrated on the ship Defence with William French, FFA Chart #2, and was thought of as a relative, but not a son. This needs further research. Furthermore, Edward French (FFA Chart #4) married Anne Worcester and immigrated to Massachusetts. These French and Wooster families emigrated from London to Massachusetts during the Puritan Great Migration.

Parentage of Francis French

Researchers have long thought that William French’s so-called first child, Francis French, born 1625, was not his, which is explained more below. On the ship Defence were two women named Elizabeth. One boarded with her husband William French and she was his wife Elizabeth, aged 32. The other Elizabeth, age 30, boarded with the 4 children. The Elizabeth who was 30 was probably caring for William’s children and was a very close relative. She was probably either:

A sister of William; however no Elizabeth is listed as a sister of William in the parish registrar.

The wife of a brother or relative of William (William’s sister-in-law) who had died and William cared for this wife, and son Francis. No known brother of William married an Elilzabeth.

Francis’ father could have had the name Francis and be the Francis French, son of Thomas French, gent., born 29 Jun 1606, of FFA Chart #EB. We need to find out if this Francis married a woman named Elizabeth, born in 1605, and had son Francis born in 1625.

“An” Elizabeth had married a French. She died as the widowe from The Leete and was buried 5 Apr 1625, D/P 96/1/1, Image 118. She perhaps died in childbirth with son Francis born in 1625. Because she is listed as a widow when she died, that indicates that if she was the one who had son Francis, her husband would have also died prior to her. More research is needed. She could have been the wife of William’s father.

In William’s will, he specifically says he is giving to “all” his children, but he does not give to Francis; thereby, Francis was probably not his son.

A proven marriage record has not yet been found. There was “an” Elizabeth French (nee French) was christened 30 Oct 1602 in Terling, Essex. Elizabeth may have been the mother of Francis French who was born in 1625. This birthdate, 30 Oct 1602, equates to her being exactly 32 ½ years old in July 1635 when the ship Defence left London. William is listed with his wife, Elizabeth, age 32, on the ship passenger list. No other record of an Elizabeth has been found except this one and one of Elizabeth Cannon of London. This marriage may never have taken place – we need more research (see her ancestry in England). It was the custom for marriages to take place in the bride’s hometown.

There are 19 records in Boyd’s Marriage Index of a William French who married between 1620 and 1635. Most applicable are, of course, those showing wife Elizabeth, and there are only 2, both in London:

1625 – William and Elizabeth Cannon at St. Antholin
1620 – William and Elizabeth Edwards of St. Botolph Without Bishop Gate

5.1 Elizabeth French, b. ca. 1629 according to the ship passenger list. She was listed as age 6 in July 1635 when she boarded the ship Defence in London. Elizabeth d. 21 Jul 1697 in Dedham, Norfolk Co., MA. She was named after her mother.

Other sources list her as baptized 5 Sep 1630 in Halstead, England at the parish church of St. Andrews, but this record could not be found.

I found a listing of “an” Elizabeth French baptized 30 Aug 1629 in Sisted, Essex, just south of Greenstreet. D/P 49/1/1, Image 34, the daughter of John. This Elizabeth would have been exactly the right age to be the Elizabeth French, a child of 6 years old on the ship Defence to New England in 1635. But, this Elizabeth French was the daughter of John, not William.

5.2 Maria (Mary) French, born ca. Jan 1633, was baptized between 2 to 3 years of age at her father’s “joyning” in Massachusetts, listed as age 2 1/2 in Jul 1635 when boarding the ship Defence [13], [6], [15]. At this time, Mary’s uncle John French had moved from Halstead to Great Tey, but no other French births occur in Great Tey at that time. It is thought that the family originally left from Harwich on a ship which barely arrived in London. They waited in London awhile before boarding the Defence to Boston. See Memoirs of a Passenger on the Ship Defence. You can also note that the family remained in Essex before departing to Harwich, and that they did not live in London. See the index from Roger Harlakenden’s Account Book on 25 Mar 1635 which proves his family was still in Earl’s Colne just before emigrating.

5.3 John French, born in Feb 1635, listed as 5 months old on 8 Oct 1635 when he entered the ship Defence for America in July 1635. [13], [6], [15]. No record of John being born in St. Gabriel, Fenchurch, London, England. John was christened in Cambridge, MA, after immigrating, probably baptized with his sister Mary. He was named after his uncle.

Other children born in MA to William French were:

    Sarah the daughter of Wm Ffrench & Elisabeth his wife was borne January 1638.
    Jacob the sonne of William Ffrench & Elisabeth his wife was borne 16 Nov 1639.
    Hannah I the daughter of Willm Ffrench & Elisabeth his wife was borne 2 Dec 1641 and dyed 20 Apr 1642.
    Hannah II the daughter of William Ffrench & Elisabeth.
    Samuel the sone of William Ffrench & Elisabeth.
    Then Mary II, Sarah II, Abigail, and Hannah III with William’s next wife.

Halstead

During the Middle Ages (1100-1453), English wool was much in demand on the Continent as it wove a superior cloth. This prompted in the 14th century an embargo on the export of wool in an attempt to create a weaving industry in this country. So began Halstead’s long association with the weaving trade. For many centuries, the weaving trade was Halstead’s prosperity not withstanding Continental wars, the English Civil War, and outbreaks of the plague cutting off exports to the Continent or disrupting home production.

The demand for the local cloth fell dramatically after 1589 when the jealousy of the native weavers drove the Flemish master weavers out of the town. No amount of petitioning would persuade the Dutchmen to return and the Halstead weaving trade fell into sharp decline.

Incorrect Line of William French

Records of William’s ancestry in many cases are incorrect by supposing that William French of Billerica, MA, who emigrated on the ship Defence in 1635, was baptized in Halstead, Essex, England on 15 Mar 1603 as the son of Thomas French of Stanstead Hall, Essex as stated in Ref. [6] and many other source material. Stanstead Hall is a manor house in Halstead. These sources show William's father as Thomas French of Halstead, Essex, England. He married a Wood and is reported to have had William, born March 15, 1602-3; Frances, bap. June 29, 1606; and Jerrymya, bap. Nov. 21, 1607[6]. Other sources give William's father as Thomas also but give a much larger set of Thomas' children. However these claims would seem to be incorrect. Thomas was buried in Halstead Nov. 20, 1613, and his will was proved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury Jan. 27, 1613-4. He left 400 pounds each to his sons John, Edward, William, Robert, and Francis. His son William, who was baptised at Halstead March 15, 1603 was of St. Dunstans-in-the-West of London when he made his will May 14, 1621. In it are mentioned his brothers and sisters John, Edward, Robert, Francis, Ann, Elianor, Elizabeth, Margaret, Jemima, and Dorothy French. He also mentioned the 400 pounds given him by his father. This will was proved in the Commissary Court of London Nov. 27, 1637 making it impossible that this William was the William French of Billerica, MA. There is very little information in the church registers regarding this family however. See this French family of Halstead as FFA Chart #EB.

“A” William French was bapt. 15 Dec 1605, son of Andrew, at St. James at Clerkenwell, London (in Middlesex) [5] [19]. This is not thought to be the William of Billerica, MA, because there were no Andrews in his line.

Delpha Triptow, researcher in Salt Lake City, found a William French of Honiton on Otter in Devon, England who had three children born in Honiton on Otter with the same names as those listed in Mary Queal Beyer’s book, but the dates are different. These children are: Elizabeth, b. 1622 (Beyer and ship records says 1629), John, b. 1628 (Beyer says 1635), and Mary, 1632 (Beyer says 1633). There is also a Mary born on 20 Nov 1630 in Wantage, Berkshire, England. No Francis is listed, but the other three children are all listed as the children of William French of Honiton on Otter, England. See Ref [14] regarding William French of Honiton on Otter in Devon, England, also an incorrect line for the William French of Billerica.

Elizabeth Godfrey and her Son Francis French

The following ancestry should not be confused with William French of Halstead.

In early times, the ruler of England sent a representative to outlying districts to visit manor houses and count the people so his officers could estimate the taxes.

Through these records, we may have identified Elizabeth Godfrey’s whereabouts. We found “an” Elizabeth Godfrey living only 36 miles west of Halstead, Essex County, in Croydon, Cambridgeshire. She had a son named Frances, and her husband, Frances Scargill, died when his son was only 6 months old. That would leave Elizabeth a widow with a 6-month old child named Frances – a perfect candidate for the wife of William of Billerica, MA. (from the Visitation of Cambridge, 1619.)

The Elizabeth who immigrated to America, m. William French in England (whereabouts unknown), and d. 31 Mar 1668 in Billerica, MA. Elizabeth’s son, Francis (spelled with an “i”), removed to Milford, CT about 1650, and four years later was the second settler in Derby, CT. Francis was not mentioned in his father’s will. It has been noted in several books that Francis was not the son of William, but with no legal documentation to verify it. If Francis were actually Francis Scargill, born 1618 in Knockwell (Knapwell), Cambridge, England, he would have been 16 when he emigrated (immigration records say he was 10), 31 when he removed to CT, 42 when he married, and 62 when he died.

After a partial search, this line seemed to be a winner, so I stopped my research –– a very dangerous thing to do. Then I asked my researcher, Delpha Triptow, in Salt Lake City, to research this line further. Delpha found that little Frances stayed in Cambridge, England, all his life, got his BA in 1639, MA in 1643, was ordained a Deacon in 1643, was a Vicar of Knapwell in 1650, and d. 1653. So, this Frances is not the same one as the Francis who emigrated with William and Elizabeth French on the ship Defence in 1635. (Originally from the Frenchline, Vol. V, No. 4, August 1994, with updates)

Furthermore, The Visitation of Hertfordshire, 1634, by Robert Cooke, Esq., outlines the family of Richard Cole of Shenley, alias Salisbury Hall, Hertfordshire and his wife Dorathy, dau. of Francis Scargill of Knapwell, Co. Cambridge, dated 1634. They had 6 children: William Cole, Richard Cole, Francis Cole, Thomas Cole, John Cole, and Dorothy Cole.

Maps

These superly-detailed historical Ordnance Survey maps date back to between 1860 and 1910, and are available for every town in England and Wales.

Zoom in on this satellite map of England to visually see the approximation of these towns: Boxford, Assington, Edwardstone, Bures St. Mary, Lamarsh, Twinstead, Groton, Halstead, Coggeshall, Gosfield, Wethersfield, Arkesden, Great Bardfield, Farnham, and Wickhambrook  where large French families lived.

See also Maps of Essex and Suffolk in various years.

Essex Record Office

The Essex Record Office in England recently began posting high resolution images of the early parish registers (more extensive and better quality than the LDS filmings) on their website. All parish registers before 1700 are now available to view online. The main shortcoming is there is no plan as yet for any date indexes to these images that makes finding particular years and events a little awkward. This might interest French's with origins in Essex. There are also images of wills and other documents. Go to http://seax.essexcc.gov.uk/ and in the “Search Criteria” box, type a town, such as Terling or Coggeshall, and then the date range, such as 1550-1650. Nothing is yet indexed, so you need to look thru all the images. See transcripts of Parish Records in Essex.

Bibliography

[1] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed in 1989, document ref. E.R.O. D/P 96/1/1, Search ref. G.S. 173/89 of all baptisms in the Parish of Halstead in the county of Essex from 1564 to 1616. 22 French baptisms listed in Halstead between 1564 and 1616. No French born 1612-1650 in Halstead.

[2] Kent County Council, West Kent Archives Office, County Hall, Maidstone, Kent ME14 1XQ, letter, dated Feb. 21, 1990. Letter says that the original parish records for Sandwich, Kent Co., are held at the East Kent Archives Office, Cathedral Library, Canterbury. The West Kent office holds manuscript extracts only. See [10]. Also Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed 26 Apr 1990, Order No. GS 99/90 for 3 hrs, Halstead Parish Register, burials 1608 to 1639. Nine deaths of French in Halstead between 1608 and 1639.

[3] A William French is listed in [17] as an emigrant from Halstead on ship Francis to Cambridge, MA, ref. N.E.G.R. 44/367.

[4] New World Immigrants edited by Michael Tepper, Vol I, 1979, SLC US & CAN 973 W3tN V.1, FFA F102. Also Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, Essex County, England. Unpublished typescript Calendar of Essex Quarter Sessions Rolls, Q/SR 199/127, 4 June 1612 recognizance (i.e. bond) given by William Frenche weaver, Thomas Pilgryme weaver, and William Baylyfe alias Smith tailor, all of Halstead. William Frenche to keep the peace towards Richard Harrold. This info was received in a letter from Frederick G. Emmison, Chelmsford, England, listing Essex Record Office Manorial Records, 1989.

[5] IGI, Essex County, England, and letter from FFA member John Threlfall, 13 May 1990.

[6] A Genealogical History of the French and Allied Families, by Mary Queal Beyer, 1909. Also Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, work done by Dr. Emmison, May 1989. Unpublished typescript Calendar of Essex Quarter Sessions Rolls, Q/SR 136/19. 1596/7 January. Presentment for parish of Halstead. That there is a little footbridge leading from Earls Colne (2 miles southeast from Halstead) to Halstead that is carried away with a flood, and we have heard it is in question between Mr. Little and Mr. Frenche which of them shall make the bridge. This proves that the Frenches lived in close proximity to Earls Colne, the town where Roger Harlakeden lived who sailed with a William French on the Defence, to America.

[7] William French and family were servants to Roger Harlakenden of Earl Colne, Essex.

[8] William French wrote his will on 5 Jun 1679 and stated he was about 76. Will probated 20 Nov/Dec 1681. He gives only to married children. 

[9] NEHGR, Vol 65, p. 284, 7th line.

[10] Most likely Elizabeth Symmes was not from Canterbury, a city in Kent. The researcher could have thought that the Prerogative Court of Canterbury meant the city, but in those times it was part of the General Court System of England and covered the southern 2/3rds of England, while the Prerogative Court of York covered the upper 1/3rd. Research done by letter, dated Jun 1990 from Cathedral City and Diocesan Record Office in The Precincts, Canterbury, Kent CT1 2EH, ref. KAS/G10/133 indicates no marriage records for Symmes, Godfrey, or French entries for St. Clements or St. Peters Original Parish Registers during the period 1624-1630. St. Georges Canterbury, printed volume, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials 1538-1800 also does not indicates Elizabeth Symmes of that period. This info was sent to the FFA by Delpha Triptow, researcher from Salt Lake City, 2 Oct 1991.

[11] Edson’s Genealogical Notes, 1932, which says Elizabeth, w/o William French, was Elizabeth Symmes, daughter of Rev. William Symmes (b. ca. 1570) of Sandwich, Kent, England.

[12] History of Derby, CT, 1880 by Samuel Orcutt. Edward Wooster was first settler in Derby. Francis French was second settler.

[13] Emigrated on Defence of London which sailed from London the end of July 1635 and arrived at Boston 8 Oct 1635 with about 100 passengers. Ship list says William was 30 in July 1635.

[14] Delpha Triptow, a researcher in Salt Lake City, also found a William French of Honiton on Otter in Devon, England, who had three children born in Honiton on Otter with the same names, but different dates. These children are Elizabeth, b. 1622; John, b. 1628; and Mary, b. 1632.  We’re looking for an Elizabeth, b. 1629, Mary b. 1632, and John b. 1635.

[15] The Original Lists of Persons of Quality, 1600-1700, by John Camden Hotten, 1931. No record indicating this family was from Halstead.

[16] The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1660, by Peter Wilson Coldham, 1987. This source states that the Frenches were from Fenchurch, London, and sailed on the Defence from London between 20 June and 18 July, 1635, with Mr. Edward Pearce, shipmaster, who later changed his name to Thomas Bostock [16]. Website: http://books.google.com/books?id=vWDV4Fk7TmAC&pg=PA151&lpg=PA151&dq=%22William+French%22+%2BLondon+%2B%22Thomas+Bostock%22&source=bl&ots=Ygw2VEiUeP&sig=2lEEPCcQGCBss-CiTm2THZZZ6mc&hl=en&ei=X8y_S_C5A8LknAf5vM2VCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CA4Q6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=%22William%20French%22%20%2BLondon%20%2B%22Thomas%20Bostock%22&f=false

[17] Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Emigrants to New England, 1620-1650, by Charles Edward Banks, 1963.

[18] Worksheets of Harry Dana French, New Hampshire Historical Society, Concord, NH.

[19] IGI, London. Also, Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed on 7 Aug 1990 of all baptism, marriage, and burial records of Gosfield, Essex, England, 1538 to 1650. Also a Mary French m. Thomas Person on 12 Dec 1649.

[20] Research by Delpha Triptow in Salt Lake City, 2 Oct 1991. No leads to the name Godfrey in Genealogical Gleanings in England by Henry Waters. No leads to Symmes or French in St. Clement Church, London during researched time period. No Symmes in Earles Colne. There is an Elizabeth Symmes of St. Lawrence Pountney Parish in London whose father, Randall Symmes, died in 1599. It would seem this is a too early because Elizabeth was probably born in the early 1600s. Ship records indicate her to be 32 in 1635. Parish records of Pountney Parish, St. Lawrence, London. No French or Symmes marriages from 1538-1635. Letter from Delpha Triptow in Salt Lake City, 13 Mar 1992.

[21] ERO, Halstead burials, 1564-1607 = 2 Frenches.

[22] ERO, Halstead marriages, 1564-1650 and 1608-1638 - 9 Frenches.

[23] Boyd’s Marriage Index for Essex, FFA E004.

[24] ERO, Earls Colne birth records 1628-1635, no French or Symmes.

[25] FFA member Gloria H. Lane, 424 Smith Ave., Modesto, CA 95354. Her information came from a genealogy by Mrs. E. F. Baty (77500 S. 6th, D14, Cottage Grove, OR 97424) that mentions Elizabeth Godfrey as the wife of William French in  a book entitled "Van Dyke: Over Three Hundred Years of One Line . . . " Elizabeth Baty’s current address is 104 E. Cleveland, Keytesville, MO 65261.

[26] Mara French’s research trip to the Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, England, August 1994.

[27] The Danforth Genealogy by John Joseph May (1902) mentions an Elizabeth Symmes who was believed by some to be the wife of the immigrant Nicholas Danforth, father of Billerica, MA settler Jonathan Danforth. On p. 5 he writes, "The writer has no means of knowing from whence the supposition sprang that she was Elizabeth, daughter of Rev. William Symmes, of Canterbury, England, and a sister of Rev. Zachariah Symmes, second minister of the church at Charlestown. The entire absence of allusions to relationship between men so prominent as the Danforths and Mr. Symmes in their own writings and the sketches of them written near their own time is strong ground for suspecting the error of the guess; and the distance of Kent from Suffolk also throws discredit upon the theory."

[28] Gary Boyd Roberts’ "English Origins of New England Families" (1981) discusses, starting on page 127, that erroneous notion that William French of Billerica is the same person as William French of Essex, England, born in 1603.

[29] NEHGRegister, July 1988, p. 250, says William French might be the son of William French, born in 1580, who was the son of Jacob and Susan (Warren) French.

[30] Boyd’s Marriage Record Index, researched [26].

[31] Generalogy of the Billerica, Massachusetts "French" Family, from 1599-1914, by H. Martin Kellogg in 1884 and updated by Mrs. Bonnibel French Hodgkins in 1915 states that Elizabeth is listed in the parish church of St. Andrews in Halstead (The FFA never saw this entry). If she was baptized in 5 Sep 1630, she would have been just under 5 yrs old when the ship left in Jul 1635. Ship records show she was 6. Perhaps she was baptized a year after she was born.

[32] N106 Dedham, Essex, England. John Rogers of Dedham. Weathersfield, Chelmsford. Church registers of Chelmsford go back to A.D. 1538. John Rogers of Billerica. Rev. Mr. Hazen. Grandchild Mary French. Elizabeth of Timothy Symmes. Mr. Syms (Minister of New England). John Sym, cousin Henry Sym, Mr. John Symes. St. Dionis Backchurch, London. Fenchurch Street. Gabriel Fenchurch, London, clothworker. Fenchurch = Area of clothworkers, and Wm. French was a weaver. Thomas Boylson, clothworker. St. Gabriel, Fenchurch, London. Elizabeth Symes, wife of Thomas Symes. Samuel Symes. Willm Syms, Zacharye Syms, Zacherie Simes, William Simes, Mary Simes, Sara Simes, Mary Simmes, William Symmes, Mary Symmes, Zachary Simmes, Sara Baker, Rev. Zechariah Syms or Symmes, b. in Canterbury Kent, 5 April 1599, minister of Charlestown, Mass. William Symmes, father William Symmes. See The Symmes Memorial, by Rev. John A. Vinton, Boston, 1873. See website: http://www.archive.org/stream/symmesmemorialbi00vint/symmesmemorialbi00vint_djvu.txt

Francis Scrogges, Aldebury, Herts, b. 3 June 1585. Bardene, Essex. Henry, William and Francis Scrogges, Randolphe Symmes, Anne Symmes, Dorothy Symmes, Dyonis Simms, Edward and Francis Scrogges, Penelope Scrogges, Smythie Scrogges, Emlyn Scrogges, Susan Scrogges, Ann Scrogges. Anne Scroggs of Earles Colne, Essex, William Harlakenden, Edward Scroggs, Sister Scroggs, Margaret Scroggs, Richard Harlakenden of Colne, Prior. Cousin Sara Simmes of New England, Daniel Rogers of Wethersfield, Earles Colne, Smith the wife of William Harlakenden, brother-in-law William Harlakenden of Earles Colne. Mrs. Sara Symmes, Randolph Symmes, Randall Symmes. Anne Scroggs, daughter of Edward, had a sister Smith or Smithee, who married William Harlakenden, son of Thomas and Dorothy (Cheney) Harlakenden. Roger Harlakenden, Rev. Thomas Shepard, who had been at Earles Colne, Richard Harlakenden, brother of Roger of New England, sister Mabel, brother John Steadman, brother William French. Sara Simes. See Topographer and Genealogist, Vol. i, pp 228-258, edited by John Gough Nichols F.S.A., for a full pedigree of Harlakenden families; also REGISTER, Vol. xv., pp. 327-329. See website: http://www.archive.org/stream/topographergenea02nich/topographergenea02nich_djvu.txt

Cousin Randall Symmes, cousin Richard Symmes. Wethersfield, Essex Co., Harlow, Essex Co., Eppinage, Essex Co., Wrightsbridge, Essex Co., Rayleigh, Essex Co.  Robert Man, Jane, daughter of William Symes, Esq. Coat of arms of "Symses". John Symes Esq. Randall Syms, 1599, Elizabeth Syms, Mrs. Sara Symmes, Thomas Man, London, son Nathaniel Man, Anne, Johan, Francis, (Frances?) Nichloas and Thomas. Sara Simms. George French the weaver.

[33] The Parish Registers of St. Anthonlin, Budge Row, London, Marriages, Baptisms, and Burials from 1538 to 1754, by Joseph Lemuel Chester, 1883. According to ancestry.com, there was an Elizabeth Cannon b. 7 Dec 1606 in Great Munden, Herfordshire, England. Another Elizabeth Cannon was chr. 22 Aug 1602 in St. Leonard, Heston, Middlesex. Another Elizabeth Cannon was bap. 2 Feb 1605 in St. Mary Stratford Bow, Middlesex, the dau. of William Cannon. There are various other ones, but none born in Essex. Who knows if this William French was the emigrant or not?

[34] English Origins of New England Families. Genealogical Research in England, transcribed by Miss Elizabeth French and communicated by the Committee on English Research.

[35] The London Marriage Licenses, 1521-1869, by Joseph Foster, Joseph Lemuel Chester, and John Ward Dean.

[36] Descendants of William French by Kristin C. Hall, email: Kristin@media.mit.edu (good in 2002), website: http://kristinhall.org/fambly/FrenchWm/WilliamFrench.html

[37] Newport. At the north end of the village are slight remains of an hospital, founded in the reign of King John hj Richard de Newport. William Nassau Bell, Esq. ; David Sliipper, Esci", 2 m. w. Arkesden. 4 ni. further, Measden. John Perring, Esq. 2-h m. Anstey. Widdeal Hall, C. H. Ellis, Esq. 1 m. further. Chipping. 1 m. n. of which Buckland. Robert Sailboys, Esq. ; William French, Esq.

[38] The French family was still living in Halstead between 1803 and 1818. See website: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~boydsindex/Boydsindexf.htm

[39] “A Genealogical History of the French and Allied Families” by Mary Queal Beyer, website: http://www.archive.org/stream/genealogicalhist00beye/genealogicalhist00beye_djvu.txt

[40] See website: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mroman/french.htm

[41] Generalogy of the Billerica, Massachusetts "French" Family, from 1599-1914, by H. Martin Kellogg in 1884 and updated by Mrs. Bonnibel French Hodgkins in 1915 states that Elizabeth (the daughter) is listed in the parish church of St. Andrews in Halstead (The FFA never saw this entry). If she were baptised in 5 Sep 1630, she would have been just under 5 yrs old when the ship left in Jul 1635. Ship records show she was 6. Perhaps she was baptised a year after she was born.

[42] Index from Roger Harlakenden’s Account Book on 25 Mar 1635 that proves his family was still in Earl’s Colne just before emigrating. Also see the Contents: http://linux02.lib.cam.ac.uk/earlscolne/contents.htm.   

Roger Harlakenden was chr. 1 Oct 1611 in Earls Colne and d. 17 Nov 1638 in Cambridge, MA.

[43] Thomas French, http://linux02.lib.cam.ac.uk/earlscolne/equity/17600522.htm.

[44] From the National Archives at KEW Gardens in London, E 115/144/106 shows a William French during the years 1625-1628 who is liable for taxation in London and not in Essex (Barstable and Chafford), the previous area of tax liability.

[45] Reverend Thomas Shepard, website: http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/chistory/section63shepard.htm

[46] Scott French, email: scottt@chartermi.net (email good in 2009).

[47] Ed French, email: frenched@gmail.com (email good in 2009).

[48] Bostic Family of South Carolina, website: http://www.mydunlap.net/Bostock.html, Wanda Karyn Bostic

[49] William French website: http://kristinhall.org/fambly/FrenchWm/WilliamFrench.html, email: Kristin@media.mit.edu

[50] Gordon Fisher, email: gfisher@shentel.net, website: http://www.familyorigins.com/users/f/i/s/Gordon-M-Fisher/FAMO1-0001/index.htm

[51] Ancestry.co.uk, London, England, Baptisms, Marriages, and Burials of St. Dunstans-in-the-West, William French was buried on 16 May 1621. This is the William French of FFA Chart #EB.

[52] Louise Finlayson of Greenstead Green, Essex, England. Email: louisefinlayson@btinternet.com. I met her at the church in Greenstead Green in June 2010. She contacted two people listed as Ref. [53] who have lived in this area all their lives, and asked them to explain to me about “Greenstreet” and “The Leete”. Here is what they say:

Perce’s, Persie’s, or Piers is a family surname “Piercy” whom the bridge in Greenstead Green was named after – Piercy’s Bridge.

[53] Cleone Branwhite and her sister Pru who live in 2 houses on the back road to Stanstead Hall in Halstead across the street from the Stanstead Hall Coach House at Oak Tree Cottage, Stanstead Hall, Greenstead Green, Halstead, Essex CO91QJ, England.

 [54] Rev. Thomas Shepard’s Memoir of His Own Life (.doc file which is 26 pages). He was a passenger on the Defence, along with the Harlakendens et al, and he describes the voyage on that ship to New England.

[55] Jim Weber, website: http://wc.rootsweb.ancestry.com/cgi-bin/igm.cgi?op=GET&db=jweber&id=I36600, email: jim.weber@nwintl.com.

[56] Peter Joslin, website: http://www.peterjoslin.btinternet.co.uk/stisted.htm, email: peterjoslin@btinternet.com.

[57] Migration and the Origins of the English Atlantic World, by Alison Games, website: http://books.google.com/books?id=kFWBQbCMMZUC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=%22Roger+Harlakenden%22+%2B%22Earls+Colne%22+%2BDefence&source=bl&ots=NWPHRDADx7&sig=eKzZ91wGICqbENZ5RSHCuYri42Y&hl=en&ei=4h1TTJXXB4WmsQOR6LzRBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CCgQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false p. 45-46.

[58] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed in 1989, document ref. E.R.O. D/P 96/1/1, Search ref. G.S. 173/89 of all baptisms in the Parish of Halstead in the county of Essex from 1564 to 1616. 22 French baptisms listed in Halstead between 1564 and 1616.

[59] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed 26 Apr 1990, Order No. GS 99/90 for 3 hrs, Halstead Parish Register, burials 1608 to 1639. Nine deaths of French in Halstead between 1608 and 1639.

[60] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed in 1989, document ref. E.R.O. GS 207/89, dated 9 August 1989, of all Halstead baptisms between 1617-1650, and all burials 1564-1607. No French was born between 1617 and 1650 in Halstead. Only two deaths were recorded in Halstead between 1564 and 1607, a William and John, both in the year 1604.

[61] Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, Essex County, England. Unpublished typescript Calendar of Essex Quarter Sessions Rolls, Q/SR 199/127, 4 June 1612 recognizance (i.e. bond) given by William Frenche weaver, Thomas Pilgryme weaver, and William Baylyfe alias Smith tailor, all of Halstead. William Frenche to keep the peace towards Richard Harrold. This info was received in a letter from Frederick G. Emmison, Chelmsford, England, listing Essex Record Office Manorial Records, 1989.

[62] Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, Essex County, England, work done by Dr. Emmison. No French records in the Manorial Records of Halstead for the Manor of Abells, D/Dvz 8, which are not the earliest records for this manor, Court Roll 1631-1656. No French records in the Manorial Records of Halstead for the Manor of Stanstead, Court Roll, 1637-1651 which is the earliest record for this manor. No French records in the Manorial Records of Halstead for the Manor Bois Hall alias Dynes Hall in Halstead, for which there are no relevant court rolls, but there is a single Rental, 1603: D/DVz 83; also a survey (not a map) or small booklet of early extracts from the court rolls, 1557-1584: D/DVz 84, for which there are no French references.

[63] Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, work done by Dr. Emmison, May 1989. Unpublished typescript Calendar of Essex Quarter Sessions Rolls, Q/SR 136/19. 1596/7 January. Presentment for parish of Halstead. That there is a little footbridge leading from Earls Colne (2 miles southeast from Halstead) to Halstead that is carried away with a flood, and we have heard it is in question between Mr. Little and Mr. Frenche which of them shall make the bridge. This proves that the Frenches lived in close proximity to Earls Colne, the town where Roger Harlakenden lived who sailed with a William French on the Defence, to America.

[64] Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, work done by Dr. Emmison, May 1989. Unpublished typescript Calendar of Essex Quarter Sessions Rolls, Q/SR 329/29. 1646. Presentment for parish of Halstead by the surveyors of the highways of all such as have peremptorily refused to do their duties [in maintaining the roads]. Landowners [8 names] include Mr. Frenche. [Each fined 40 shillings.]

[65] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed 13 Jun 1990, document ref. E.R.O. GS 149/90, burials in Halstead, 1639-1650, only one surname French, 26 Jan 1641, the child of Thomas French. Marriages 1564-1650 (5 total). Earls Colne Parish Register, Baptisms 1628-1635. None of surname French. Private research also done on names Greenstreet and Leete.

[66] Halstead Town Guide and Street Plan, 1985. Greenstead Green lies two miles off the main A604 just southeast of Halstead on the Colchester side of town, immediately south of Stanstead Hall. Leete could stand for leet, a territorial division, a manorial court, or its jurisdiction. It might mean the manor estate where perhaps William was an employee or tenant directly under the lord of the manor.

[67] Bures Saint Mary Parish Register. This register has never been published.

[68] A Genealogical History of the French and Allied Families, by Mary Queal Beyer, 1909. Her research on William of 1603 indicates the incorrect family who immigrated to MA. The correct William French was christened in 1605/6.

[69] Essex Record Office, Chelmsford R2/35/20.

[70] Mara French’s trips to England, August 1985 and May 1989. Also trip to England in Jun 2010.

[71] Boyd’s Marriage Index shows a William French, m. Ann Stevens at Halstead, 1622. Also a John French, m. Joan Siday at Great Tey in 1631. Also, a John French m. Jane Pratt at Halstead in 1631.

[72] This is the only Richard French from Halstead. An emigrant named Richard French is listed in [17] as coming from Coggeshall (south of Halstead) to Concord and Cambridge, MA according to Middlesex Court Records. No date given.

[73] Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Emigrants to New England, 1620-1650, by Charles Edward Banks, 1963.

[74] A William French is listed in [17] as an emigrant from Halstead on ship Francis to Cambridge, MA, ref. N.E.G.R. 44/367.

[75] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed on 7 Aug 1990 of all baptism, marriage, and burial records of Gosfield, Essex, England, 1538 to 1650. Also a Mary French m. Thomas Person on 12 Dec 1649.

[76] Undetermined Frenches: A William French, widower, of Halstead, m. Anne Stevens, widow, on 13 May 1622. A William French, widower, of Halstead, m. Anne Bland, widow, on 18 Feb 1640. An Anne French, widow, the wife of William French from The Leete, d. 7 Jul 1623. (The first and third Ann listed here could be the same person.) Elizabeth French, d. 5 Apr 1625, widowe from The Leete. Presently there is no area named The Leete in Halstead; it is probably meant as a person of the court.

[77] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed on 27 Sep 1990, order number GS252/90, Halstead baptisms 1650-1669, 1686-1700; marriages 1653-58, 1662-88, 1695-1700; burials, 1653-73. No register survives for intervening periods.

[78] Boyd’s Marriage Index for Essex, FFA E004.

[79] Essex County Council, Essex Record Office, County Hall, Chelmsford, CM1 1LX, England. Research completed 26 Apr 1990, Order No. GS 99/90 for 3 hrs, Halstead Parish Register, burials 1608 to 1639. Nine deaths of French in Halstead between 1608 and 1639. Parish Records of Halstead and Gosfield (never before published) researched by Jane Smith at the Essex Record Office in Chelmsford, England, 1990.

The word “gent” or “Mr.” or “Esquire” is used for Thomas French of Stanstead Hall in Halstead, FFA Chart #EB, because he owned land.

Since all of the following baptisms in Halstead are fathered by 3 men (Christopher, William, and Thomas), it seems as though these 3 men could be brothers since these births all occur between 1582 and 1611. The chart number is listed at the end of each line. Updated list of these parish records.

[80] J. Michael Frost, email: frostinaz@cox.net

[81] From Ref. [24]:

There was an outbreak of the bubonic plague in England around the year 1603. See:

http://www.william-shakespeare.info/bubonic-black-plague-elizabethan-era.htm

Information about the Spread of the Elizabethan Black Death or the Bubonic Plague in Elizabethan England

There were repeated outbreaks of the disease during the Elizabethan era and these outbreaks were often transmitted by the fleas that lived on rodents and animals, especially rats. Contrary to popular belief it was not just the people who lived in the towns who were at risk of catching the Black Death or Bubonic Plague. Elizabethan farmers and retailers of farm produce, such as animal hides, were in constant danger of contracting the Bubonic plague (Black Death) and this was a deadly consequence of their job. The disease could also be air bound and transmitted from an infected person's breath.  A devastating outbreak of the Elizabethan plague occurred in 1563 claiming 80,000 people in England. The cause of the Bubonic plague (Black Death) was unknown during the Elizabethan era so people were not in the position to take proper care or adequate precautions. Inadequate hygiene standards added to the problem and spread of the disease

Information about the Spread of the Black Death / Bubonic Plague in Elizabethan London

In 1563, in London alone, over 20,000 people died of the disease. This particular epidemic claimed between a quarter and a third of the total Elizabethan London population. Statistics show that 1000 people died weekly in mid August 1600 per week in September, and 1800 per week in October. The Elizabethan City of London was filthy. It's population was growing continuously with poor people moving from the country to London in search of work. There was a total lack of a structured sewage system in Elizabethan London. All of the waste was just dumped into the River Thames. The River Thames is a tidal river and, as such, it would have acted like a natural sewer. But even so terrible epidemics of Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) during the Elizabethan period still occurred. The spread was aided by the River Thames and its boats which were used as the major form of transport in Elizabethan London. The London streets were dark, narrow and dangerous and slow to travel through. Everyone used the river to move about and each London Elizabethan would have come into contact with the everyday presence of the dirt and the rats. A perfect vehicle for ensuring the spread of the disease in Elizabethan London. An Elizabethan London who did not understand how the Bubonic plague (Black Death) was spread...

Queen Elizabeth - Information about containing the Spread of the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague during the Elizabethan era

There was nowhere to hide from the disease and no one was safe, not even the monarch. Queen Elizabeth was terrified of the disease and implemented quarantine measures to try to ensure the safety of herself and her courtiers. When the Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) broke out in London in 1563, Queen Elizabeth I moved her court to Windsor Castle where she erected gallows and ordered that anyone coming from London was to be hanged - so great was the fear of the plague and avoiding any spread of it to her court. Queen Elizabeth I also prohibited the import of foreign goods as a measure to prevent the spread of the disease to the Elizabethan court.

Information about the Closure of the Elizabethan Globe Theater due the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague

There were three very serious outbreaks of the disease which led to the closure of all places of Elizabethan entertainment, including the Globe Theater. These occurred in 1593, 1603 and 1608. The impact of closure must have been extremely frightening, not to mention the threat of the Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) itself. There would have been no money coming into the theater companies and therefore no money for the Elizabethan actors. It would not have been certain when it would be safe for the theaters to re-open. And there would have been the constant fear of contacting the Black Death ( Bubonic Plague ) or seeing friends and family dying from the deadly disease. The Elizabethan era was truly a dangerous time. The spread of the disease continued.

Information about the Symptoms of the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague

The symptoms associated with the disease were, and are, painful swellings (bubos) of the lymph nodes. These swellings, symptoms of the deadly plague, would appear in the armpits, legs, neck, or groin. Victims also suffered a very high fever, delirium, the victim begins to vomit, muscular pains, bleeding in the lungs and mental disorientation. The illness also produced in the victim an intense desire to sleep, which, if yielded to, quickly proved fatal. It was no wonder that the Black Death or Bubonic Plague was so feared by the people of the Elizabethan era.

The Elizabethan Medical Treatment of the Black Death or the Bubonic Plague

 The main reasons for the 14th century pandemic effect and spread of the virus was the poor hygiene and the massive number of infected rodents. The Bubonic plague (Black Death) was always caught or spread from an infected animal or person. The victims would often die within two to four days. A frightening and swift end to life. A really effective medical treatment and cure for the Bubonic plague (Black Death) was impossible during the Elizabethan and later periods of history. Some elements of quarantine were introduced but usually by the time that this was instigated the deadly disease had already struck. Elizabethan Pesthouses were established, a few miles away from the infected areas, where the victims would be sent. But the spread of the disease still continued...

 [82] Apparently some Frenches remained in Essex as Boyd's Marriage Index shows:

1777 Wm FRENCH & Susan SUTTON, Prittlewell

1777 Wm FRENCH & Mary KENDALL, Sible Hedingham

1779 Wm FRENCH & Elizabeth BRIGHT, High Easter

1784 Wm FRENCH & Rebecca REEVE, Gt Chesterford

1785 Wm FRENCH & Sarah BISHOP, Wakes Colne

1786 Wm FRENCH & Jane CLARK, Bocking

1788 Wm FRENCH & Mary SULLINS, Gt Chesterford

1801 Henry FRENCH & Mary JONSON, Easthorpe

1802 Joseph FRENCH & Ann MARTIN, Chelmsford

1802 Sarah FRENCH & George CLERK, Birdbrook

1803 Sarah FRENCH & Thomas STAMMERS, Halstead

1803 James FRENCH & Sarah STILES, Chelmsford

1803 William FRENCH & Susannah HOWARD, Halstead

1804 Joseph FRENCH & Mary UNMAN, Southminster

1805 William FRENCH & Elizabeth SENDERS, Southminster

1807 Sarah FRENCH & Thomas WESTWOOD, Chelmsford

1807 Wm FRENCH & Jane POTS, Bocking

1808 John FRENCH & Sarah DIXON, Chelmsford

1811 John FRENCH & Mary PITT, Burnham

1813 Joseph FRENCH & Hannah CHANDLER, Alphanstone

1817 William FRENCH & Mary WOMBWELL, Bocking

1818 William FRENCH & Mary CONSTABLE, Wakes Colne

1818 John FRENCH & Sarah REEVE, Gt Chesterford

1818 Joseph FRENCH & Sarah POTTER, Halstead

1819 John FRENCH & Ann BUTCHER, Birdbrook

1820 Samuel FRENCH & Mary PATTEN, Wakes Colne

[83] Early Court Records in Essex of Frenche (with an “e”) in Halstead.

1593, Q/SR 126/59 – Thomas Frenche, John Holstead, John Coggeshall, John Watson, Geoffry Little, and Robert Dod.

1586, Q/SR 97/12 – John French of Pentlow (now in Suffolk County)

1644, Q/SR 322/57 – Robert Frenche of Gosfield

1585, Q/SR 93/6 – Richard Frenche of Steeple Bumpstead

1621, Q/SR 233/81 – Richard Frenche of Steeple Bumpstead

1617, Q/SR 218/45 – William Frenche, weaver, of Halstead

1585, Q/SR 95/8 – Richard Frenche of Steeple Bumpstead

1588, Q/SR 106/8 – Thomas Frenche of Steeple Bumpstead

1587, Q/SR 102/81 – Richard Frenche of Steeple Bumpstead

1595, Q/SR 131/2-5 – Thomas Frenche and William Sewell of Halstead

[84] Revd. Geoff Bayliss, Vicar of St. Catherine’s Church in Gosfield in 2010, The Vicarage Church Road, Gosfield, Essex CO9 1UD, g.bayliss41@btinternet.com. He is also the Vicar of St. James The Great parish church in Greenstead Green.

[85] Migration and the Origins of the English Atlantic World, by Alison Games, in the article on p. 45, website: http://books.google.com/books?id=kFWBQbCMMZUC&pg=PA45&lpg=PA45&dq=%22Roger+Harlakenden%22+%2B%22Earls+Colne%22+%2BDefence&source=bl&ots=NWPHRDADx7&sig=eKzZ91wGICqbENZ5RSHCuYri42Y&hl=en&ei=4h1TTJXXB4WmsQOR6LzRBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CCgQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false

[86] Genealogical gleanings in England, Volume 1, by Henry Fitz=Gilbert Waters, p. 826, website: http://books.google.com/books?id=CaNCAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA826&lpg=PA826&dq=%22Randall+Symmes%22&source=bl&ots=yY796cDMpu&sig=xAlmZ09RytEsSyEIg6Aupwa6b80&hl=en&ei=vMykTPn4NpS-sQOWjM3-Dg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=%22Randall%20Symmes%22&f=false.

[87] Removed.

[88] Removed.

[89] There is a record of “a” William French who married Elizabeth Cannon 16 Aug 1625 at London (by lie) according to the parish registers of St. Anthonlin, Budge Row, London [33] (below).

“An” Elizabeth Cannon was of Colchester, Essex, and was married to Lawrence Cannon when she wrote her will on 26 May 1686. D/ABW 72/33. No children are mentioned in her will; only her husband Lawrence is mentioned. This Elizabeth Cannon is a different person from the one mentioned above because her maiden name was obviously not Cannon. (below)

There is a record of a William French bapt. 15 Dec 1605, son of Andrew, at St. James at Clerkenwell, London (in Middlesex) [5] [19]. Most likely he is not the same William as this chart, so this entry is considered not feasible.

[90] The Antiquary, Volume 31, edited by Edward Walford, John Charles Cox, and George Latimer Apperson. Jim Franklin of Brazen Head Farm in Great Bardfield, a retired farmer, died 21 Jun 2001. Frenches, otherwise known as King’s Farm, an off-license beerhouse at Great Bardfield on 45 acres next to Brazenhead Farm in Lindsell, 304 acres, was sold in 1905, SALE/B 1478 Sale Catalogue in SEAX.

 

The name Brazen Head is called this from a large lion's head of brass which was affixed to the outer gate. This leonine door knocker which gave the farm its name is now exhibited in the British Museum.

[91] William French’s family in New England: http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~mroman/french.htm

[92] Wakes Colne 1871 Census

Ann French

74

Cornard, Suffolk, England

Head

Wakes Colne

Essex

Ann French

48

Mount Bures, Essex, England

Head

Wakes Colne

Essex

Earnest E French

3 months

Colchester, Essex, England

Grandson

Wakes Colne

Essex

Elisha C French

14

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Son

Wakes Colne

Essex

Eliza French

15

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Daughter

Wakes Colne

Essex

Henry French

20

Mount Bures, Essex, England

Son

Wakes Colne

Essex

Joseph French

70

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Lodger

Wakes Colne

Essex

Louisa French

18

Mount Bures, Essex, England

Daughter

Wakes Colne

Essex

Marthia French

10

Mount Bures, Essex, England

Daughter

Wakes Colne

Essex

Mary French

77

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Mother

Wakes Colne

Essex

Peter French

40

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Head

Wakes Colne

Essex

Sophia French

38

Bures Hamlott, Essex, England

Wife

Wakes Colne

Essex

William French

11

Wakes Colne, Essex, England

Son

Wakes Colne

Essex

 

[93] Q/SR 257/72, 1 Apr 1627, Certificate from the inhabitants of Twinstead that Henry Stamer of the same has behaved himself very honestly, industriously and peaceably among them.

Signatures and marke of: Isaac Wyncoll, Charles Spiller, Elias Boutel, Daniel Strutt, John Lee, Peter Andrewe, John Cole, Thomas Kemp, John Harroud, Henry Lasel junior, Robert Garlop, John Mickelfilde. Endorsed by the inhabitants of "Pedmarsh" near adjoining that they never heard to the contrary but that the said Henry was a very honest peaceable man in his carriage. Thomas Cook, Thomas Cross, Rector of the church there, Henry Meriton, Robert Thomson, William Leffingwell, John Mathewe, William Lorkin, William PRENCH, George Simsonn, William Barber.

Perhaps Prench should be French. I found no other surname Prench whatsoever in the SEAX. This could mean that the William French who had children Jacob and Thomas in Twinstead in 1606-1607 was still living there in 1627 and never moved to Halstead at all. 

[94] William French d. 9 Sep 1604 in Halstead. See following burial record: “Willia French and Widow Trundle were buryed 9 of September 1604” D/P 96/1/1, Image 104, about the 12th name down. Widow Trundle was an unrelated woman who may have died of the plague on the same day. See information about the outbreak of the bubonic plague in England around 1603. I saw a listing for Elizabeth Trundle in 1602 of Little Sampford which is west of Halstead.

Also, John French d. 1 Oct 1604. For each of these burials, there is no mention of father, son, widower, infant, or adult and no way of telling who these two individuals were. At first it seems as if they were infant brothers both dying of the same plague; or else they were both adults.

[95] DNA Tester Reade French, grfrench3@hotmail.com, email good in 2010.

[96] Barbara Purple LaViers who does research on the Harlakenden family of Earls Colne and Wethersfield, 1600-1650. Email: hlbp@worldnet.att.net

[97] History of Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1630-1877, by Lucius Robinson Paige, website: http://books.google.com/books?id=1NBTW-JhT4gC&pg=PA661&lpg=PA661&dq=%22John+Stedman%22+%2BCambridge&source=bl&ots=a-L-UJXg_m&sig=yJFkprUcBKot5r9enGtV4liWRfw&hl=en&ei=u6_uTPmDO4eCsQOrwrXGCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=%22John%20Stedman%22%20%2BCambridge&f=false

[98] The document for the French and Cannon families is as follows -- there are 5 documents as such, all with the same information, documents 267/17 thru 267/21.

Repository:

Essex Record Office

 

Level: Category

Miscellaneous

 

Level: Fonds

DEEDS OF TERLING

 

Level:

Item

 

Reference Code

D/DU 267/17

 

Dates of Creation

1608-1709

 

Scope and Content

Deeds relating to a croft called Dignis in Terling, held by members of the French, CANNON and Osband families

 

Date From

1608

 

Date To

1709